Actors and async data

The programming model of the Internet Computer consists of memory-isolated canisters communicating by asynchronous message passing of binary data encoding Candid values. A canister processes its messages one-at-a-time, preventing race conditions. A canister uses call-backs to register what needs to be done with the result of any inter-canister messages it issues.

Motoko abstracts the complexity of the Internet Computer with a well known, higher-level abstraction: the actor model. Each canister is represented as a typed actor. The type of an actor lists the messages it can handle. Each message is abstracted as a typed, asynchronous function. A translation from actor types to Candid types imposes structure on the raw binary data of the underlying Internet Computer. An actor is similar to an object, but is different in that its state is completely isolated, its interactions with the world are entirely through asynchronous messaging, and its messages are processed one-at-a-time, even when issued in parallel by concurrent actors.

In Motoko, sending a message to an actor is a function call, but instead of blocking the caller until the call has returned, the message is enqueued on the callee, and a future representing that pending request immediately returned to the caller. The future is a placeholder for the eventual result of the request, that the caller can later query. Between issuing the request, and deciding to wait for the result, the caller is free to do other work, including issuing more requests to the same or other actors. Once the callee has processed the request, the future is completed and its result made available to the caller. If the caller is waiting on the future, its execution can resume with the result, otherwise the result is simply stored in the future for later use.

In Motoko, actors have dedicated syntax and types; messaging is handled by so called shared functions returning futures (shared because they are available to remote actors); a future, f, is a value of the special type async T for some type T; waiting on f to be completed is expressed using await f to obtain a value of type T. To avoid introducing shared state through messaging, for example, by sending an object or mutable array, the data that can be transmitted through shared functions is restricted to immutable, shared types.

To start, we consider the simplest stateful service: a Counter actor, the distributed version of our previous, local counter object.

Example: a Counter service

Consider the following actor declaration:

actor Counter {

  var count = 0;

  public shared func inc() : async () { count += 1 };

  public shared func read() : async Nat { count };

  public shared func bump() : async Nat {
    count += 1;

The Counter actor declares one field and three public, shared functions:

  • the field count is mutable, initialized to zero and implicitly private.

  • function inc() asynchronously increments the counter and returns a future of type async () for synchronization.

  • function read() asynchronously reads the counter value and returns a future of type async Nat containing its value.

  • function bump() asynchronously increments and reads the counter.

Shared functions, unlike local functions, are accessible to remote callers and have additional restrictions: their arguments and return value must be shared types - a subset of types that includes immutable data, actor references, and shared function references, but excludes references to local functions and mutable data. Because all interaction with actors is asynchronous, an actor’s functions must return futures, that is, types of the form async T, for some type T.

The only way to read or modify the state (count) of the Counter actor is through its shared functions.

A value of type async T is a future. The producer of the future completes the future when it returns a result, either a value or error.

Unlike objects and modules, actors can only expose functions, and these functions must be shared. For this reason, Motoko allows you to omit the shared modifier on public actor functions, allowing the more concise, but equivalent, actor declaration:

actor Counter {

  var count = 0;

  public func inc() : async () { count += 1 };

  public func read() : async Nat { count };

  public func bump() : async Nat {
    count += 1;

For now, the only place shared functions can be declared is in the body of an actor or actor class. Despite this restriction, shared functions are still first-class values in Motoko and can be passed as arguments or results, and stored in data structures.

The type of a shared function is specified using a shared function type. For example, the value inc has type shared () → async Nat and could be supplied as a standalone callback to some other service (see publish-subscribe for an example).

Actor types

Just as objects have object types, actors have actor types. The Counter actor has the following type:

actor {
  inc  : shared () -> async ();
  read : shared () -> async Nat;
  bump : shared () -> async Nat;

Again, because the shared modifier is required on every member of an actor, Motoko both elides them on display, and allows you to omit them when authoring an actor type.

Thus the previous type can be expressed more succinctly as:

actor {
  inc  : () -> async ();
  read : () -> async Nat;
  bump : () -> async Nat;

Like object types, actor types support subtyping: an actor type is a subtype of a more general one that offers fewer functions with more general types.

Using await to consume async futures

The caller of a shared function typically receives a future, a value of type async T for some T.

The only thing the caller, a consumer, can do with this future is wait for it to be completed by the producer, throw it away, or store it for later use.

To access the result of an async value, the receiver of the future use an await expression.

For example, to use the result of above, we can first bind the future to an identifier a, and then await a to retrieve the underlying Nat, n:

let a : async Nat =;
let n : Nat = await a;

The first line immediately receives a future of the counter value, but does not wait for it, and thus cannot (yet) use it as a natural number.

The second line awaits this future and extracts the result, a natural number. This line may suspend execution until the future has been completed.

Typically, one rolls the two steps into one and one just awaits an asynchronous call directly:

let n : Nat = await;

Unlike a local function call, which blocks the caller until the callee has returned a result, a shared function call immediately returns a future, f, without blocking. Instead of blocking, a later call to await f suspends the current computation until f is complete. Once the future is completed (by the producer), execution of await p resumes with its result. If the result is a value, await f returns that value. Otherwise the result is some error, and await f propagates the error to the consumer of await f.

Awaiting a future a second time will just produce the same result, including re-throwing any error stored in the future. Suspension occurs even if the future is already complete; this ensures state changes and message sends prior to every await are committed.

A function that does not await in its body is guaranteed to execute atomically - in particular, the environment cannot change the state of the actor while the function is executing. If a function performs an await, however, atomicity is no longer guaranteed. Between suspension and resumption around the await, the state of the enclosing actor may change due to concurrent processing of other incoming actor messages. It is the programmer’s responsibility to guard against non-synchronized state changes. A programmer may, however, rely on any state change prior to the await being committed.

For example, the implementation of bump() above is guaranteed to increment and read the value of count, in one atomic step. The alternative implementation:

  public shared func bump() : async Nat {
    await inc();
    await read();

does not have the same semantics and allows another client of the actor to interfere with its operation: each await suspends execution, allowing an interloper to change the state of the actor. By design, the explicit awaits make the potential points of interference clear to the reader.

Traps and Commit Points

A trap is a non-recoverable runtime failure caused by, for example, division-by-zero, out-of-bounds array indexing, numeric overflow, cycle exhaustion or assertion failure.

A shared function call that executes without executing an await expression never suspends and executes atomically. A shared function that contains no await expression is syntactically atomic.

An atomic shared function whose execution traps has no visible effect on the state of the enclosing actor or its environment - any state change is reverted, and any message that it has sent is revoked. In fact, all state changes and message sends are tentative during execution: they are committed only after a successful commit point is reached.

The points at which tentative state changes and message sends are irrevocably committed are:

  • implicit exit from a shared function by producing a result,

  • explict exit via return or throw expressions, and

  • explicit await expressions.

A trap will only revoke changes made since the last commit point. In particular, in a non-atomic function that does multiple awaits, a trap will only revoke changes attempted since the last await - all preceding effects will have been committed and cannot be undone.

For example, consider the following (contrived) stateful Atomicity actor:

actor Atomicity {

  var s = 0;
  var pinged = false;

  public func ping() : async () {
    pinged := true;

  // an atomic method
  public func atomic() : async () {
    s := 1;
    ignore ping();
    ignore 0/0; // trap!

  // a non-atomic method
  public func nonAtomic() : async () {
    s := 1;
    let f = ping(); // this will not be rolled back!
    s := 2;
    await f;
    s := 3; // this will not be rolled back!
    await f;
    ignore 0/0; // trap!


Calling (shared) function atomic() will fail with an error, since the last statement causes a trap. However, the trap leaves the mutable variable s with value 0, not 1, and variable pinged with value false, not true. This is because the trap happens before method atomic has executed an await, or exited with a result. Even though atomic calls ping(), ping() is tentative (queued) until the next commit point, so never delivered.

Calling (shared) function nonAtomic() will fail with an error, since the last statement causes a trap. However, the trap leaves the variable s with value 3, not 0, and variable pinged with value true, not false. This is because each await commits its preceding side-effects, including message sends. Even though f is complete by the second await on f, this await also forces a commit of the state, suspends execution and allows for interleaved processing of other messages to this actor.

Query functions

In Internet Computer terminology, all three Counter functions are update messages that can alter the state of the canister when called. Effecting a state change requires agreement amongst the distributed replicas before the Internet Computer can commit the change and return a result. Reaching consensus is an expensive process with relatively high latency.

For the parts of applications that don’t require the guarantees of consensus, the Internet Computer supports more efficient query operations. These are able to read the state of a canister from a single replica, modify a snapshot during their execution and return a result, but cannot permanently alter the state or send further Internet Computer messages.

Motoko supports the implementation of Internet Computer queries using query functions. The query keyword modifies the declaration of a (shared) actor function so that it executes with non-committing, and faster, Internet Computer query semantics.

For example, we can extend the Counter actor with a fast-and-loose variant of the trustworthy read function, called peek:

actor Counter {

  var count = 0;

  // ...

  public shared query func peek() : async Nat {


The peek() function might be used by a Counter frontend offering a quick, but less trustworthy, display of the current counter value.

It is a compile-time error for a query method to call an actor function since this would violate dynamic restrictions imposed by the Internet Computer. Calls to ordinary functions are permitted.

Query functions can be called from non-query functions. Because those nested calls require consensus, the efficiency gains of nested query calls will be modest at best.

The query modifier is reflected in the type of a query function:

  peek : shared query () -> async Nat

As before, in query declarations and actor types the shared keyword can be omitted.

Messaging Restrictions

The Internet Computer places restrictions on when and how canisters are allowed to communicate. These restrictions are enforced dynamically on the Internet Computer but prevented statically in Motoko, ruling out a class of dynamic execution errors. Two examples are:

  • canister installation can execute code, but not send messages.

  • a canister query method cannot send messages.

These restrictions are surfaced in Motoko as restrictions on the context in which certain expressions can be used.

In Motoko, an expression occurs in an asynchronous context if it appears in the body of an async expression, which may be the body of a (shared or local) function or a stand-alone expression. The only exception are query functions, whose body is not considered to open an asynchronous context.

In Motoko calling a shared function is an error unless the function is called in an asynchronouus context. In addition, calling a shared function from an actor class constructor is also an error.

The await construct is only allowed in an asynchronous context.

The async construct is only allowed in an asynchronous context.

It is only possible to throw or try/catch errors in an asynchronous context. This is because structured error handling is supported for messaging errors only and, like messaging itself, confined to asynchronous contexts.

These rules also mean that local functions cannot, in general, directly call shared functions or await futures. This limitation can sometimes be awkward: we hope to extend the type system to be more permissive in future.

Actor classes generalize actors

An actor class generalizes a single actor declaration to the declaration of family of actors satisfying the same interface. An actor class declares a type, naming the interface of its actors, and a function that constructs a fresh actor of that type each time it is supplied with an argument. An actor class thus serves as a factory for manufacturing actors. Because canister installation is asynchronous on the Internet Computer, the constructor function is asynchronous too, and returns its actor in a future.

For example, we can generalize Counter given above to Counter(init) below, by introducing a constructor parameter, variable init of type Nat:
actor class Counter(init : Nat) {
  var count = init;

  public func inc() : async () { count += 1 };

  public func read() : async Nat { count };

  public func bump() : async Nat {
    count += 1;

If this class is stored in file, then we can import the file as a module and use it to create several actors with different initial values:

import Counters "Counters";

let C1 = await Counters.Counter(1);
let C2 = await Counters.Counter(2);
(await, await

The last two lines above instantiate the actor class twice. The first invocation uses the initial value 1, where the second uses initial value 2. Because actor class instantiation is asynchronous, each call to Counter(init) returns a future that can be awaited for the resulting actor value. Both C1 and C2 have the same type, Counters.Counter and can be used interchangeably.

For now, the Motoko compiler gives an error when compiling programs that do not consist of a single actor or actor class. Compiled programs may still, however, reference imported actor classes. For more information, see Importing actor classes and Actor classes.