Stable variables and upgrade methods

One key feature of the Internet Computer is its ability to persist canister smart contract state using WebAssembly memory and globals rather than a traditional database. This means that that the entire state of a canister is magically restored before, and saved after, each message, without explicit user instruction. This automatic and user-transparent preservation of state is called orthogonal persistence.

Though convenient, orthogonal persistence poses a challenge when it comes to upgrading the code of a canister. Without an explicit representation of the canister’s state, how does one tranfer any application data from the retired canister to its replacement?

Accommodating upgrades without data loss requires some new facility to migrate a canister’s crucial data to the upgraded canister. For example, if you want to deploy a new version of a user-registration canister to fix an issue or add functionality, you need to ensure that existing registrations survive the upgrade process.

The Internet Computer’s persistence model allows a canister to save and restore such data to dedicated stable memory that, unlike ordinary canister memory, is retained across an upgrade, allowing a canister to transfer data in bulk to its replacement canister.

For applications written in Motoko, the language provides high-level support for preserving state that leverages Internet Computer stable memory. This higher-level feature, called stable storage, is designed to accommodate changes to both the application data and to the Motoko compiler used to produce the application code.

Utilizing stable storage depends on you — as the application programmer — anticipating and indicating the data you want to retain after an upgrade. Depending on the application, the data you decide to persist might be some, all, or none of a given actor’s state.

Declaring stable variables

In an actor, you can nominate a variable for stable storage (in Internet Computer stable memory) by using the stable keyword as a modifier in the variable’s declaration.

More precisely, every let and var variable declaration in an actor can specify whether the variable is stable or flexible. If you don’t provide a modifier, the variable is declared as flexible by default.

The following is a simple example of how to declare a stable counter that can be upgraded while preserving the counter’s value:

actor Counter {

  stable var value = 0;

  public func inc() : async Nat {
    value += 1;
    return value;
You can only use the stable or flexible modifier on let and var declarations that are actor fields. You cannot use these modifiers anywhere else in your program.


Because the compiler must ensure that stable variables are both compatible with and meaningful in the replacement program after an upgrade, the following type restrictions apply to stable state:

  • every stable variable must have a stable type

where a type is stable if the type obtained by ignoring any var modifiers within it is shared.

Thus the only difference between stable types and shared types is the former’s support for mutation. Like shared types, stable types are restricted to first-order data, excluding local functions and structures built from local functions (such as objects). This exclusion of functions is required because the meaning of a function value — consisting of both data and code — cannot easily be preserved across an upgrade, while the meaning of plain data — mutable or not — can be.

In general, object types are not stable because they can contain local functions. However, a plain record of stable data is a special case of object types that is stable. Moreover, references to actors and shared functions are also stable, allowing you to preserve their values across upgrades. For example, you can preserve state recording a set of actors or shared function callbacks subscribing to a service.

How stable variables are upgraded

When you first compile and deploy a canister, all flexible and stable variables in the actor are initialized in sequence. When you deploy a canister using the upgrade mode, all stable variables that existed in the previous version of the actor are pre-initialized with their old values. After the stable variables are initialized with their previous values, the remaining flexible and newly-added stable variables are initialized in sequence.

Preupgrade and postupgrade system methods

Declaring a variable to be stable requires its type to be stable too. Since not all types are stable, some variables cannot be declared stable.

As a simple example, consider the Registry` actor from the discussion of orthogonal persistence.

import Text "mo:base/Text";
import Map "mo:base/HashMap";

actor Registry {

  let map = Map.HashMap<Text, Nat>(10, Text.equal, Text.hash);

  public func register(name : Text) : async () {
    switch (map.get(name)) {
      case null {
        map.put(name, map.size());
      case (?id) { };

  public func lookup(name : Text) : async ?Nat {

await Registry.register("hello");
(await Registry.lookup("hello"), await Registry.lookup("world"))

This actor assigns sequential identifiers to Text values, using the size of the underlying map object to determine the next identifier. Like other actors, it relies on orthogonal persistence to maintain the state of the hashmap between calls.

We’d like to make the Register upgradable, without the upgrade losing any existing registrations.

Unfortunately, its state, map, has a proper object type that contains member functions (for example, map.get), so the map variable cannot, itself, be declared stable.

For scenarios like this that can’t be solved using stable variables alone, Motoko supports user-defined upgrade hooks that, when provided, run immediately before and after upgrade. These upgrade hooks allow you to migrate state between unrestricted flexible variables to more restricted stable variables. These hooks are declared as system functions with special names, preugrade and postupgrade. Both functions must have type : () → ().

The preupgrade method lets you make a final update to stable variables, before the runtime commits their values to Internet Computer stable memory, and performs an upgrade. The postupgrade method is run after an upgrade has initialized the replacement actor, including its stable variables, but before executing any shared function call (or message) on that actor.

Here, we introduce a new stable variable, entries, to save and restore the entries of the unstable hash table.

import Text "mo:base/Text";
import Map "mo:base/HashMap";
import Array "mo:base/Array";
import Iter "mo:base/Iter";

actor Registry {

  stable var entries : [(Text, Nat)] = [];

  let map = Map.fromIter<Text,Nat>(
    entries.vals(), 10, Text.equal, Text.hash);

  public func register(name : Text) : async () {
    switch (map.get(name)) {
      case null  {
        map.put(name, map.size());
      case (?id) { };

  public func lookup(name : Text) : async ?Nat {

  system func preupgrade() {
    entries := Iter.toArray(map.entries());

  system func postupgrade() {
    entries := [];

Note that the type of entries, being just an array of Text and Nat pairs, is indeed a stable type.

In this example, the preupgrade system method simply writes the current map entries to entries before entries is saved to stable memory. The postupgrade system method resets entries to the empty array after map has been populated from entries to free space.

Stable type signatures

The collection of stable variable declarations in an actor can be summarized in a stable signature.

The textual representation of an actor’s stable signature resembles the internals of a Motoko actor type:

actor {
  stable x : Nat;
  stable var y : Int;
  stable z : [var Nat];

It specifies the names, types and mutability of the actor’s stable fields, possibly preceded by relevant Motoko type declarations.

You can emit the stable signature of the main actor or actor class to a .most file using moc compiler option --stable-types. You should never need to author your own .most file.

A stable signature <stab-sig1> is stable-compatible with signature <stab-sig2>, if, and only,

  • every immutable field stable <id> : T in <stab-sig1> has a matching field stable <id> : U in <stab-sig2> with T <: U.

  • every mutable field stable var <id> : T in <stab-sig1> has a matching field stable var <id> : U in <stab-sig2> with T <: U.

Note that <stab-sig2> may contain additional fields. Typically, <stab-sig1> is the signature of an older version while <stab-sig2> is the signature of a newer version.

The subtyping condition on stable fields ensures that the final value of some field can be consumed as the initial value of that field in the upgraded code.

You can check the stable-compatiblity of two .most files, cur.most and nxt.most (containing stable signatures), using moc compiler option --stable-compatible cur.most nxt.most.
The stable-compatible relation is quite conservative. In the future, it may be relaxed to accommodate a change in field mutability and/or abandoning fields from <stab-sig1> (but with a warning).

Upgrade safety

Before upgrading a deployed canister, you should ensure that the upgrade is safe and will not

  • break existing clients (due to a Candid interface change); or

  • discard Motoko stable state (due to an incompatible change in stable declarations).

A Motoko canister upgrade is safe provided:

  • the canister’s Candid interface evolves to a Candid subtype; and

  • the canister’s Motoko stable signature evolves to a stable-compatible one.

Upgrade safety does not guarantee that the upgrade process will succeed (it can still fail due to resource constraints). However, it should at least ensure that a successful upgrade will not break Candid type compatibility with existing clients or unexpectedly lose data that was marked stable.

You can check valid Candid subtyping between two services described in .did files, cur.did and nxt.did (containing Candid types), using the didc tool with argument check nxt.did cur.did. The didc tool is available at

Metadata sections

The Motoko compiler embeds the Candid interface and stable signature of a canister as canister metadata, recorded in additional Wasm custom sections of a compiled binary.

This metadata can be selectively exposed by the IC and used by tools such as dfx to verify upgrade compatibility.

Upgrading a deployed actor or canister smart contract

After you have deployed a Motoko actor with the appropriate stable variables or preupgrade and postupgrade system methods, you can use the dfx canister install command with the --mode=upgrade option to upgrade an already deployed version. For information about upgrading a deployed canister, see Upgrade a canister smart contract.

An upcoming version of dfx will, if appropriate, check the safety of an upgrade by comparing the Candid and (for Motoko canisters only) the stable signatures embedded in the deployed binary and upgrade binary, and abort the upgrade request when unsafe.